Scottish borders dating

The civic tradition of the Scottish Enlightenment contributed to the intellectual ferment of the American Revolution.

According to the historian Arthur Herman: "Americans built their world around the principles of Adam Smith and Thomas Reid, of individual interest governed by common sense and a limited need for government." Scottish Americans who made major contributions to the revolutionary war included Commodore John Paul Jones, the "Father of the American Navy", and Generals Henry Knox and William Alexander.

Americans of Scottish descent outnumber the population of Scotland, where 4,459,071 or 88.09% of people identified as ethnic Scottish in the 2001 Census.

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Regular contacts began with the transportation of indentured servants to the colony from Scotland, including prisoners taken in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms.

By the 1670s Glasgow was the main outlet for Virginian tobacco, in open defiance of English restrictions on colonial trade; in return the colony received Scottish manufactured goods, emigrants and ideas.

In the 1670s and 1680s Presbyterian Dissenters fled persecution by the Royalist privy council in Edinburgh to settle in South Carolina and New Jersey, where they maintained their distinctive religious culture.

Trade between Scotland and the American colonies was finally regularized by the parliamentary Act of Union of Scotland and England in 1707.

Psalm-singing and gospel music have become central musical experiences for African American churchgoers and some elements of these styles were introduced, in these communities, by Scots (although they were also more widespread at this time).

psalm-singing, or "precenting the line" as it is technically known, in which the psalms are called out and the congregation sings a response, was a form of musical worship initially developed for non-literate congregations and Africans in America were exposed to this by Scottish Gaelic settlers as well as immigrants of other origins.The Scottish couple were runners who scouted for Thorfinn Karlsefni's expedition in c.1010, gathering wheat and the grapes for which Vinland was named.The table shows the ethnic Scottish population in the United States from 1700 to 2013.In 1700 the total population of the American colonies was 250,888, of whom 223,071 (89%) were white and 3.0% were ethnically Scottish.Population growth and the commercialization of agriculture in Scotland encouraged mass emigration to America after the French and Indian War, American bluegrass and folk music styles have some of their roots in the Appalachian ballad culture of Scotch-Irish Americans (predominantly originating from the "Border Ballad" tradition of southern Scotland and northern England).

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